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ADHD I The Prefrontal Cortex

The prefrontal cortex is the center of of the brain for executive functions and decision making. Executive function describes the activity of a system that manages other cognitive systems, in much the way an executive of a company would. In this sense, the prefrontal cortex is involved in managing processes like reason, logic, problem solving, planning, and memory. It is thought that, through the integration of these multiple processes, the prefrontal cortex plays a significant part in directing attention, developing and pursuing goals, and inhibiting counterproductive impulses.
How the Brain Interprets Pain 

When we feel pain, such as when we touch a hot stove, sensory receptors in our skin send a message via nerve fibres (A-delta fibres and C fibres) to the spinal cord and brainstem and then onto the brainwhere the sensation of pain is registered, the information is processed and the pain is perceived.

This video demonstrates a very brief and simple explanation of the pathways involved in regard to pain. The more we understand about these pathways the better we can block and alter the pain response. 
Migraines I Genetic Factors

In recent years significant progress has been made in our understanding of the causes of migraine as well as new ideas for treatments. In 2010 a gene called TRESK was found to be directly linked to a common type of migraine.  This was an important step in working out why some people are predisposed to suffering with this condition. 
Back Pain Due to Disc Herniation 

A spinal disc has a soft center encased within a tougher exterior. Sometimes called a slipped disk or a ruptured disk, a herniated disk occurs when the center pushes out through a tear in the tougher exterior. A herniated disc irritates the nearby nerves and may cause pain, numbness, or weakness.

I should also note, contrary to this, many people experience no symptoms from a herniated disc. We used to believe that surgery was the only way to repair a herniated disc. We no longer believe this to be true and no longer recommend surgery in every case of disc herniation.
Depression : Physical Changes in the Brain

With brain imaging we are now able to see how parts of the brain that physically change (usually by decreasing in size or showing a change in electrical activity) in depressed individuals. These brain areas include the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the nucleus accumbens, and the insula.
Femur Fractures 

Technically, this is an educational video indended for nursing students who are preparing to take their state boards to obtain their license, but it still serves as a good overview for  the general public. 

The video discusses femur (thigh bone) fractures. The femur is the largest and strongest bone in the human body. Femur fractures occur due to both high and low force incidents. The pain is usually immediate and severe.

Sinus Headaches or Migraines? 

The trigeminal nerve is the primary nerve that carries pain impulses from your mouth, teeth, head, face, ears, and neck to your central nervous system. Pain from any of its pathways can trigger migraine headaches. Triggering of this nerve also can cause a runny nose, facial pain, and nasal congestion - which might cause the patient and/or the provider to believe it to be sinus related rather than migraines.

Spinal Cord Injuries

The vertebral column, (aka the spinal column) is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column is comprised of 33 vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs. The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord.

Spinal injuries are referred to as either being complete or incomplete. - A complete injury results in complete paralysis. - An incomplete injury results in partial paralysis. 

Ketamine for Depression
As of late, interest has grown in researching ketamine for pain. In this case, it is used in low doses to provide pain relief, as opposed to the high doses used for anesthesia.

Ketamine in pain management may be used for relief of acute or chronic pain. A single intravenous dose of the medication prior to skin incision was found to decrease postoperative pain and reduce morphine consumption. Ketamine can also be used to counter postoperative pain in patients with: